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Old 06/18/2019, 12:40 PM   #1
ThRoewer
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Immunity in Fish via nutrition and the Effects of β Glucan

The Effects of β Glucan on Fish Immunity

"Abstract
Administration of glucans through immersion, dietary inclusion or injection has been found to enhance many types of immune responses, resistance to bacterial and viral infections and to environmental stress in many fish species. Although the efficacy of the glucan varies with types and administration, glucan used as an immunomodulatory and mostly immunostimulatory additive has been found satisfactory in eliciting immunity in commercial aquaculture. Development of more efficient administration methods will facilitate the routine and prophylactic use of glucans as natural immunostimulants of fish. Using a PubMed search, this review has an extensive literature on glucan in fish immunity.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Fish, Glucan, Immunity, Immunostimulation, Vaccination"

Nutrigenomics and immune function in fish: new insights from omics technologies

"Abstract
The interplay between nutrition and immune system is well recognised, however the true integration of research between nutrition, animal energy status and immune function is still far from clear. In fish nutrition, especially for species maintained in aquaculture, formulated feeds are significantly different from the natural diet with recent changes in nutrient sources, especially with protein and oil sources now being predominated by terrestrial derived ingredients. Additionally, many feeds are now incorporated to health management and termed functional feeds, which are believed to improve fish health, reduce disease outbreaks and/or improve post-infection recovery. Using new omics technologies, including transcriptomics (microarray and RNA-seq) and proteomics, the impacts of nutrition on the immune system is becoming clearer. By using molecular pathway enrichment analysis, modules of genes can indicate how both local (intestinal) and systemic immune function are being altered. Although great progress has been made to define the changes in host immune function, understanding the interplay between fish nutrition, intestinal microbiome and immune system is only just beginning to emerge."

Adaptive immune responses at mucosal surfaces of teleost fish

"Abstract:
This review describes the extant knowledge on the teleostean mucosal adaptive immune mechanisms,which is relevant for the development of oral or mucosal vaccines. In the last decade, a number of studieshave shed light on the presence of new key components of mucosal immunity: a distinct immuno-globulin class (IgT or IgZ) and the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). In addition, intestinal T cells and theirputative functions, antigen uptake mechanisms at mucosal surfaces and new mucosal vaccinationstrategies have been reported. New information on pIgR of Atlantic cod and common carp and com-parison of natural and specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the gut of common carp and Europeanseabass, is also included in this review. Based on the known facts about intestinal immunology andmucosal vaccination, suggestions are made for the advancement offish vaccines.2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)."


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Old 06/19/2019, 01:14 PM   #2
HumbleFish
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Thank you for sharing this information!


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Old 06/19/2019, 03:02 PM   #3
tonysi
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Awesome articles, I wonder how one would inject a clown or goby?


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Old 06/19/2019, 04:21 PM   #4
ThRoewer
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Quote:
Originally Posted by tonysi View Post
... I wonder how one would inject a clown or goby?
You could try it with a 34 gauge needle...


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3 P. diacanthus. 2 C. starcki

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Old 06/23/2019, 06:17 AM   #5
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This is one on the most ridiculous things I have read in a long time.


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